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first_imgIn this illustration of the frequency-controlled magnetic memory, a magnetic spherical probe attached to the end of a soft cantilever is used to detect magnetization dynamics in the vortex-state nanodisk underneath. Image credit: B. Pigeau, et al. More information: B. Pigeau, et al. “A frequency-controlled magnetic vortex memory.” Applied Physics Letters 96, 132506 (2010). Doi:10.1063/1.3373833Nanomagnetism Group webpage: Frequency control of vortex core polarity in a magnetic nanodisk iramis.cea.fr/spec/Phocea/Vie_ … marquant&id_ast=1567 Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Lava flows reveal clues to magnetic field reversals (PhysOrg.com) — Using magnetic nanodots in the vortex state, researchers have designed a new kind of non-volatile memory that could offer increased speed and density for next-generation non-volatile random access memories (RAM). The new design takes advantage of magnetic vortices’ ability to store binary information as positive or negative core polarities, which can be controlled by simply changing the frequency of the rotating vortex cores of the nanodots. Citation: Magnetic vortex memory shows memory potential of nanodots (2010, April 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-magnetic-vortex-memory-potential-nanodots.html Explore further The new technique, called frequency-controlled magnetic vortex memory, was developed by a team of researchers, B. Pigeau, et al., from France, Germany, and the US. Their study is published in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters.As the researchers explain, the concept of using magnetic nano-objects to store binary information for magnetic RAM has previously been investigated, but it’s been difficult to find a mechanism to reverse the magnetization inside individual nano-objects. Here, the researchers achieve this reversal by using microwave pulses in combination with a static magnetic field. In this scheme, large and small rotating core frequencies are associated with positive and negative core polarities, respectively. In a positive core polarity, the core is parallel to the applied magnetic field, while in a negative core polarity, the core is antiparallel to the applied magnetic field. An extremely sensitive magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) is used to address the resonant frequency of magnetic nanodots’ vortex core rotations, allowing the researchers to control the polarity states of individual nanodots. The researchers’ memory design consists of an array of magnetic nanodots and an electromagnet that generates a static magnetic field perpendicular to the array of dots. The MRFM’s small (800-nanometer-diameter) magnetic probe can scan the one-micrometer-diameter nanodots and locally control this magnetic field. To read the core polarity state of a nanodot, a weak microwave magnetic field is used to read the rotating core frequency with the probe. As the researchers explain, the microwave magnetic field used to read the polarity state must be weak enough so that the core polarity is not reversed during the reading sequence. By increasing the strength of this applied microwave magnetic field, it is possible to reverse the nanodot’s core polarity, hence to write data. Once reversed, the core polarity is out of resonance with the writing pulse so that it cannot be switched back unless the pulse’s frequency is changed. The researchers demonstrated this writing technique hundreds of times without failure, and without affecting neighboring nanodots.“This dynamical reversal mechanism is of fundamental interest but also has potential application in information technology, with the vortex core polarity coding the binary information,” coauthor Grégoire de Loubens, from the Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique de Saclay in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, told PhysOrg.com.“In sum, our frequency-controlled magnetic vortex memory prototype has two main advantages,” he said. “Owing to the frequency discrimination allowed by a small perpendicular bias field, there is no need to control the circular polarization of the microwave field and to precisely time the writing pulse as it has to be in zero field. Also, deterministic and local addressing in a large array of memory cells is easily obtained by using the stray-field of the MRFM probe, that can be scanned laterally.”The researchers plan to improve the new frequency-controlled magnetic memory in several ways, such as by arranging the dots in a regular square array and increasing the dot aspect ratio. They are also considering replacing the MRFM, which contains moving parts, with local electrical detectors for the reading process. In addition, they hope to investigate stacking dots of different aspect ratios (and different resonance frequencies) on top of each other to create a multiregister memory. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Having a battery on your mobile device that runs out of juice while you are on the go is one of the world’s biggest downers. Manufacturers know this, and they move to create devices with longer and longer battery lives. Of course, not all devices can run for a long length of time, and no matter how hard the makers of them may try, there will always be enhanced expectations that the technology will run longer and be a smaller part of the device. Panasonic releases wireless solar charging table One company, Pixel Qi, is looking to help bring batteries to a new forefront and make them easier to be re-powered. The system, which was shown off at Computex 2011, consisted on a tablet PC that can run completely on solar power. The system will use a small solar panel to produce roughly 1W of power, which is enough to run both the Pixel Qi screen and the ARM-based motherboard in the system. This makes perfect sense, since Pixel Qi is known for creating low power usage screens that can easily be read in direct sunlight. The solar panel attached to the system is expected to cost about $3 to buy. This panel allows the system to run without using battery power, as long as the sun is shining. Depending on where you live, or when you like to work, this could mean that you can go for weeks or months without having to charge your device. There is no word yet on when an integrated system will be on sale to the public, or what that system is expected to cost for end users who are interested in making the purchase. Citation: Pixel Qi creates a solar powered tablet pc (2011, June 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-pixel-qi-solar-powered-tablet.html Explore furtherlast_img read more

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first_img Play A projectile traveling at 22.2 meters per second generates four cracks in a 1-millimeter-thick sheet of Plexiglas. Credit: N. Vandenberghe/Aix-Marseille Univ. / Physics Focus Based on the analysis of 100 panes, the researchers found correlations between the number of cracks in the materials and the speed at which the balls were fired—generally, the number of cracks was directly proportional to the square root of the impact speed. The thickness and brittleness of the target had an effect on the results as well. After further analysis, they were able to create mathematical formulas that could predict the number of cracks that would appear, or working backwards, could derive the speed of the projectile after noting the characteristics of the glass or plastic and counting the number of resulting cracks.While the team’s results are highly specialized, dependent on a number of controllable factors, the researchers believe their study and results might prove useful in many other areas of study, from forensics to astrophysics or even to archeology. (Phys.org) —A team of researchers from Aix-Marseille University in France has found that the number of cracks that appear in a pane of glass or other brittle material resulting from a projectile strike is related to the speed of the striking object. The team describes test trials, observations and results in their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen More information: Star-Shaped Crack Pattern of Broken Windows, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 174302 (2013) prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v110/i17/e174302AbstractBroken thin brittle plates like windows and windshields are ubiquitous in our environment. When impacted locally, they typically present a pattern of cracks extending radially outward from the impact point. We study the variation of the pattern of cracks by performing controlled transverse impacts on brittle plates over a broad range of impact speed, plate thickness, and material properties, and we establish from experiments a global scaling law for the number of radial cracks incorporating all these parameters. A model based on Griffith’s theory of fracture combining bending elastic energy and fracture energy accounts for our observations. These findings indicate how the postmortem shape of broken samples are related to material properties and impact parameters, a procedure relevant to forensic science, archaeology, or astrophysics.Physics Focus Over the years, scientists have worked diligently to come up with different types of glass, ceramics, plastics, etc. that best suit their intended purposes. However, the current researchers note that little if any effort has gone into the study of the cracking patterns that result when objects such as rocks or bullets strike panes of glass or brittle plastics. To address this question, the researchers conducted trials at a shooting range.In order to determine any relationship between the cracks that appear in such structures and the speed with which they are struck, the researchers shot small metal balls at both glass and Plexiglas targets of varying thicknesses (0.5 mm to 3 mm thick). They used a gun that allowed for firing the balls at different speeds (up to 432 kilometers per hour). To observe what was occurring during impact, the team used high-speed video cameras. © 2013 Phys.org Citation: Researchers find number of cracks in struck glass related to speed of projectile (2013, May 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-struck-glass-projectile.html Explore further Group uses controlled cracking for nanofabrication Journal information: Physical Review Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A team of researchers analyzing data from a telescope aboard the European Space Agency’s Planck spacecraft gave a presentation at Planck 2014 recently—a meeting held in a palace in Italy—to outline findings based on data from the spacecraft and also to discuss the implications of what has been found. Artist’s impression of the Planck spacecraft. Credit: ESA/AOES Medialab Citation: Researchers report on data analysis from Planck spacecraft (2014, December 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-analysis-planck-spacecraft.html Astronomy & Astrophysics: Planck 2013 results The spacecraft was active through the years 2009 through 2013, collecting data related to cosmic microwave background (CMB)—a type of radiation believed to have been a released during the latter part of the birth of the universe. Cosmologists and physicists in general are eager to learn more about the CMB because it helps tie together parts of the Standard Model.Astrophysicist Nazzareno Mandolesi gave the general presentation including showing a map that depicts the direction and intensity of polarization of CMB as viewed in the full sky. He announced that observations from Planck reaffirm the standard model of cosmological inflation, but at the same time, call into question recent researchers’ claims of having found evidence of dark matter.Mandolesi reported that analysis of data from Planck doesn’t support the idea that positron excess found during prior research might be generated by dark matter, nixing ideas some researchers had put forth. The data did however, offer further evidence that dark matter makes up approximately 26 percent of the mass of known universe. He noted also that the maps created using data from Planck offer more validation of inflation theory and as a bonus is also helping to clear up a mismatch between earlier data from the craft as compared with data from NASA’s WMAP project.Data from Planck also appears to show evidence that agrees with those who have theorized that stars formed roughly 700 to 800 million years after the birth of the Universe, rather than with those who suggest it was as low as 400 million years ago. Other data from the craft has been used to offer more evidence that neutrinos come in three flavors, which when taken with other evidence, Mandolesi noted, makes the idea of a fourth type of neutrino less likely.The European Space Agency also announced at the meeting that they will be making the full Planck dataset available online beginning December 22nd. Explore further More information: www.cieffeerre.it/Eventi/event … ure-and-polarizationlast_img read more

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first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. New study indicates Earth’s inner core was formed 1 – 1.5 billion years ago For many years, scientists have believed that the Earth’s magnetic field is likely generated by energy that is released as the core cools and material solidifies, and radioactive decay—causing churning, the essence of the geodynamo. But, there is a problem with that idea, scientists also believe that the core did not cool enough to form an inner core, until approximately one billion years ago—that begs the questions of what caused the magnetic field to come about before there was sufficient cooling? The research pair with this new effort suggest it has to do with magnesium—they propose that it was introduced to the core during the time when the Earth was being formed, by collisions with other protoplanets, approximately 3.4 to 4.2 billion years ago. They further suggest that magnesium could make up as much as 1 percent of the material in the core, and because magnesium is only soluble in iron at very high temperatures, they believe that it is slowly precipitating out to the boundary between the core and the mantle. That process, the team notes, would leave the iron behind denser, which would cause the release of energy, which they suggest could explain the power source behind the dynamo. Their theory would explain how it is that the magnetic field has been present for so long—it would also suggest that it continues to play at least a part in how the field is generated today—with magnesium possibly driving iron convection from the top part of the core while the release of light elements from the inner core would drive convection from the bottom side.The team used computer models in developing their theory which means experiments will have to be conducted to help bolster their ideas. Two types of chemical convection in Earth’s core. Precipitating a thin layer of magnesium-rich minerals at the top of the core provides as much energy for the magnetic field as forcing silicon and oxygen out of the entire inner core. Credit: Joseph O’Rourke (Phys.org)—A pair of planetary scientists has come up with a new theory to help explain the mechanism behind the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field. In their paper published in the journal Nature, Joseph O’Rourke and David Stevenson, both with the California Institute of Technology, suggest that magnesium that made its way to the core of the planet during its early history could be the key to understanding how the magnetic field was generated in the past and what drives it in the present. Bruce Buffett with the University of California offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Journal information: Naturecenter_img More information: Joseph G. O’Rourke et al. Powering Earth’s dynamo with magnesium precipitation from the core, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature16495AbstractEarth’s global magnetic field arises from vigorous convection within the liquid outer core. Palaeomagnetic evidence reveals that the geodynamo has operated for at least 3.4 billion years, which places constraints on Earth’s formation and evolution. Available power sources in standard models include compositional convection (driven by the solidifying inner core’s expulsion of light elements), thermal convection (from slow cooling), and perhaps heat from the decay of radioactive isotopes. However, recent first-principles calculations and diamond-anvil cell experiments indicate that the thermal conductivity of iron is two or three times larger than typically assumed in these models. This presents a problem: a large increase in the conductive heat flux along the adiabat (due to the higher conductivity of iron) implies that the inner core is young (less than one billion years old), but thermal convection and radiogenic heating alone may not have been able to sustain the geodynamo during earlier epochs. Here we show that the precipitation of magnesium-bearing minerals from the core could have served as an alternative power source. Equilibration at high temperatures in the aftermath of giant impacts allows a small amount of magnesium (one or two weight per cent) to partition into the core while still producing the observed abundances of siderophile elements in the mantle and avoiding an excess of silicon and oxygen in the core. The transport of magnesium as oxide or silicate from the cooling core to underneath the mantle is an order of magnitude more efficient per unit mass as a source of buoyancy than inner-core growth. We therefore conclude that Earth’s dynamo would survive throughout geologic time (from at least 3.4 billion years ago to the present) even if core radiogenic heating were minimal and core cooling were slow. © 2016 Phys.org Citation: New theory suggests magnesium could be the key to understanding Earth’s magnetic field (2016, January 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-01-theory-magnesium-key-earth-magnetic.html Explore furtherlast_img read more

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first_imgThe World Of Marian Anderson: A Turning The Tables Playlist Hulton Archive by NPR News Leslie J. Ureña 8.26.19 10:13am Listen to this playlist on Spotify or Apple Music.The famed African American contralto Marian Anderson is often best remembered for her legendary performance in April 1939 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, after segregationist policies had restricted her from appearing at venues in Washington, D.C. that were large enough to accommodate the crowds clamoring to hear her perform. Her career, however, was more than one moment in 1939 and the events that led to that fateful concert. As explored in the exhibition One Life: Marian Anderson (on view at the National Portrait Gallery until May 17, 2020), Anderson’s impact on music and American history spanned time and geography. Despite encountering prejudice, she broke barriers each step of the way. Her impact on music and American history was a cumulative one, starting in her hometown of Philadelphia and reverberating far beyond all the stages on which she performed. She sang spirituals and lieder in her local Philadelphia church and before presidents and royalty; she faced the brunt of racism from Washington, D.C. to Europe; she inspired visual artists to create compelling works; and she served as a model and mentor to generations of classical vocalists. She sometimes grappled with the labels of “symbol” or “icon” of the Civil Rights Movement, at times embracing them, and, usually, modestly pointing to her singing as the true focus of anyone’s interest.The songs listed here provide a selection of Anderson’s expansive repertory, as well as those of some of the figures whose life she influenced whether directly or indirectly.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.last_img read more

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first_imgHere’s a treat for art lovers. Delhi Art Gallery presents the ninth edition of its signature, biannual exhibition Manifestations this summer, with a select collection of seventy-five of the most significant names in modern Indian art, representative of its wide diversity.The exhibition brings together important works of art spanning a wide range of genres, forms, periods and styles. They are grouped by genre: abstract art, figurative art, mythology, narrative, portraiture, still-life and landscapes. Each thematic arrangement features a select collection of artworks that are milestones in Indian modernism, as well as in the development of the artistic language of several of the participating artists. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exhibition presents a selection of works from the Indian modernist stable, especially the artists of the influential and erstwhile Progressive Artists’ Group, Bombay. It features a figurative work by MF Husain, an early abstract work from 1959 by SH Raza painted in France years before he arrived at the Bindu series he came to be known for and a portrait by FN Souza from his celebrated ‘Heads’ series that capture his unique response to a well-known Christian theme in art, the martyr St. Sebastian. KH Ara features with a rural landscape, SK Bakre with an abstract cityscape and HA Gade participates with a naturescape of a winding river dominated by glowing shades of indigo. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAn important highlight of the exhibition is Nandalal Bose’s well-known and luminous watercolour wash work from the 1930s, Untitled (Siva Drinking Poison) and an early representative landscape of Banaras by Ram Kumar. In the portrait section, the exhibition presents an alluring collection of portraits, several from the luminaries of academic painting in India – MV Dhurandhar, Abalall Rahiman, MF Pithawalla and NR Sardesai; a watercolour portrait by Rabindranath Tagore of Kadambari Devi and a wonderful 2003 portrait of a man by Akbar Padamsee in shades of auburn and red-orange that recalls the portraits and colour palette of his earlier decades. The landscape section features a wide range of artworks that represent the ‘typical’ realistic natural landscape, those that are abstract in style and content, as well as those that seem not directly related, such as Gogi Saroj Pal’s ‘human landscape’ of faces. A host of works feature from the ‘mature periods of premier modernists; and the exhibition also showcases works that were landmark in the development of the artist’s individual style. These feature neo-tantra artists such as Sohan Qadri, Biren De and GR Santosh. Manu Parekh and Shanti Dave participate with works in their distinctive artistic styles and techniques, Gieve Patel and Vivan Sundaram feature with large works on contemporary urban life and Dharamnarayan Dasgupta and Sunil Das are showcased through works featuring the Calcutta biwis and babus, and a vivid charcoal sketch of a rampaging bull, respectively. Featured in Manifestations for the first time are artists PS Chander Sheker and Shiavax Chavda. The exhibition is accompanied by a substantial, printed volume featuring colour plates of artworks by the seventy-five participating artists and contributions by some of the well-known art scholars and writers practicing in India today. DETAILWhere: Delhi Art Gallery, Hauz Khas Village When: On till 25 Junelast_img read more

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first_imgFrom a simple bamboo flute to ‘Naveen flute’, you have experimented with it all. What does Flutetronics have in store for your audience?This time around I have collaborated with Karsh Kale who brings in his electric beats to amalgamate with my flute. It’s a fusion that has a lot of natural influences. This album has 6 original tracks, along with 2 compositions from the last two albums- Fluid and Café Fluid.Take us through a flashback, how did this knack for experimenting with flutes come up? Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Well, nobody in the family was a musician. Though my father tried out at flute, I picked it up faster (chuckles). When I was doing my diploma in Carnatic music, my father presented me a book by Professor Sabamurthy that got me into inventing different type of flutes. That’s how Naveen flute came into being; I have attached strings inside it. I keep a collection of flutes from around the world as well.What lies ahead from here, any plan of action?Well, I would let it flow. I was given my first break by Ilaiyaraaja in 1984 for a Tamil movie. From then on I have worked with composers from all over India and travelled with AR Rahman for his shows. I love playing for my band ‘NAM’ in Mumbai. We play quite often. NAM stands for Naveen and Mitra, and I collaborate with various artistes for these shows. Flutetronics is set for release on 15 April, across all platforms.last_img read more

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first_imgGone are the days when a woman was considered an avatar of the goddess or a lucky charm. Today, she has become an object of pleasure, lust and has become the victim of some gory abuse and crimes. Hideous cases like that of Nirbhaya, Falak validate the plight of today’s woman.While the fire has died down, the ambers are still burning and have found a cathartic outlet in N. Swarnalatha’s art work. Her solo exhibition titled Nirbhaya reflects her angst on the plight of Indian women today. The series is dedicated to Nirbhaya, Vinothini, Vidhya and all the women martyrs who have taught lessons of bravery and self esteem world wide. Her piece of art seems to be depicting the stark reality of the state of the downtrodden women who are not allowed to learn and are judged on harsh benchmarks. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Her body of works are further divided into classes which provoke to reconsider and empathise with the pain and suffering of a woman. Some of them are called Knowledge Deprived which talks about the stark reality of the plight of the downtrodden women who are not allowed to learn. Shattered goes on to explore the pain of being a woman who is trapped in the clutches of man that is so vile and strong that she is easily directed to do what he wants. Endless talks about whenever a society goes through any change or turbulence or war, women suffer in different ways.Artist Swarnalatha has further decided to take the Nirbhaya Art Exhibition all over the metro cities in India namely Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Kochin and finally at Washington DC. (USA) to incite and try to alter thoughts of the society. Her artworks are not for sale.AT: Open Palm Court, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road TILL: 24 May TIMINGS: 10 am – 8 pmlast_img read more

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first_imgThe market borrowing as per the revised estimate by these two companies during the current fiscal was pegged at Rs 12,045 crore from markets, according to the Railway Budget for 2015-16, which was tabled by Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu in Parliament on Thursday.Indian Railways Finance Corporation (IRFC) will raise Rs 17,276 crore in 2015-16 for investment in rolling stock, the Railway Budget document said.Besides, the other financial firm under Indian Railway Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd (RVNL) plans to raise Rs 379 crore through market borrowing. During 2014-15, IRFC raised Rs 11,772.60 crore while RVNL mopped up Rs 273 crore from the market as per the revised estimate. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cash“For financing remunerative projects through market borrowings, it is intended to tap low-cost long-term funds from insurance and pension funds, multi-lateral and bilateral agencies which can be serviced through incremental revenues,” Prabhu said in his proposals while presenting the Rail Budget.Railways will create new vehicles to crowd in investment from long-term institutional investors and other partners, he said. “These may include setting up an infrastructure fund, a holding company and a JV with an existing NBFC of a PSU with IRFC, for raising long-term debt from domestic as well as overseas sources, including multilateral and bilateral financial institutions that have expressed keen interest in working closely with Railways in this endeavour,” he said. Resources from Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been pegged at Rs 17,136 crore. Also Read – Lanka launches ambitious tourism programme to woo Indian touristsEyes 14% freight revenue growth to Rs1.21 trillionThe proposed hike in freight rate will help Railways’ earnings from movement of goods grow by 14 per cent to Rs 1,21,423 crore in the next financial year, nearly half of which is expected to come from coal and cement.In 2014-15 (revised estimate), the revenue from movement of goods will rise to Rs 1,06,927 crore from Rs 93,095 crore in the previous year, according to the Rail Budget document. Out of the total revenue projected for the next fiscal, revenue from movement of coal would contribute the maximum at Rs 50,398.59 crore, up from Rs 44,486.27 crore in the current fiscal. The earnings from movement of cement is projected to increase to Rs 10,813.56 crore in 2015-16 from Rs 9,668.42 crore. Whereas, movement of foodgrains is expected to rake in Rs 10,158.58 crore in next fiscal from Rs 9,088.9 crore at present.Budget proposals, presented by Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu in the Parliament today, proposed a hike i freight rates for 12 commodities in the range of 0.8 per cent to 10 per cent.last_img read more